Why it’s okay for web components to use frameworks

Should standalone web components be written in vanilla JavaScript? Or is it okay if they use (or even bundle) their own framework? With Vue 3 announcing built-in support for building web components, and with frameworks like Svelte and Lit having offered this functionality for some time, it seems like a good time to revisit the question.

First off, I should state my own bias. When I released emoji-picker-element, I made the decision to bundle its framework (Svelte) directly into the component. Clearly I don’t think this is a bad idea (despite my reputation as a perf guy!), so I’d like to explain why it doesn’t shock me for a web component to rely on a framework.

Size concerns

Many web developers might bristle at the idea of a standalone web component relying on its own framework. If I want a date picker, or a modal dialog, or some other utility component, why should I pay the tax of including its entire framework in my bundle? But I think this is the wrong way to look at things.

First off, JavaScript frameworks have come a long way from the days when they were huge, kitchen-sink monoliths. Today’s frameworks like Svelte, Lit, Preact, Vue, and others tend to be smaller, more focused, and more tree-shakeable. A Svelte “hello world” is 1.18 kB (minified and compressed), a Lit “hello world” is 5.7 kB, and petite-vue aims for a 5.8 kB compressed size. These are not huge by any stretch of the imagination.

If you dig deeper, the situation gets even more interesting. As Evan You points out, some frameworks (such as Vue) have a relatively high baseline cost that is amortized by a small per-component size, whereas other frameworks (such as Svelte) have a lower baseline cost but a higher per-component size. The days when you could confidently say “Framework X costs Y kilobytes” are over – the conversation has become much more complex and nuanced.

Second, with code-splitting becoming more common, the individual cost of a dependency has become less important than whether it can be lazy-loaded. For instance, if you use a date picker or modal dialog that bundles its own framework, why not dynamically import() it when it actually needs to be shown? There’s no reason to pay the cost on initial page load for a component that the user may never even need.

Third, bundle size is not the only performance metric that matters. There are also considerations like runtime cost, memory overhead, and energy usage that web developers rarely consider.

Looking at runtime cost, a framework can be small, but that’s not necessarily the same thing as being fast. Sometimes it takes more code to make an algorithm faster! For example, Inferno aims for faster runtime performance at the cost of a higher bundle size when compared to something like Preact. So it’s worth considering whether a component is fast in other metrics beside bundle size.

Caveats

That said, I don’t think “bring your own framework” is without its downsides. So let’s go over some problems you may run into when you mix-and-match frameworks.

You can imagine that, if every web component came with its own framework, then you might end up with multiple copies of the same framework on the same page. And this is definitely a concern! But assuming that the component externalizes its framework dependency (e.g. import 'my-framework'), then multiple components should be able to share the same framework code under the hood.

I used this technique in my own emoji-picker-element. If you’re already using Svelte in your project, then you can import 'emoji-picker-element/svelte' and get a version that doesn’t bundle its own framework, ensuring de-duplication. This saves a paltry 1.4 kB out of 13.9 kB total (compressed), but hey, it’s there. (Potentially I could make this the default behavior, but I like the bundled version for the benefit of folks who use <script> tags instead of bundlers. Maybe something like Skypack could make this simpler in the future.)

Another potential downside of bring-your-own-framework is when frameworks mutate global state, which can lead to conflicts between frameworks. For instance, React has historically attached global event listeners to the document (although thankfully this changed in React v17). Also, Angular’s Zone.js overrides the global Object.defineProperty (although there is a workaround). When mixing-and-matching frameworks, it’s best to avoid frameworks that mutate global state, or to carefully ensure that they don’t conflict with one another.

If you look at the compiled output for a framework like Svelte, though, you’ll see that it’s basically just a collection of pure functions that don’t modify the global state. Combining such frameworks in the same codebase is no more harmful than bundling different versions of Lodash or Underscore.

Now, to be clear: in an ideal world, your web app would only contain one framework. Otherwise it’s shipping duplicate code that essentially does the same thing. But web development is all about tradeoffs, and I don’t believe that it’s worth rejecting a component out-of-hand just to avoid a few extra kBs from a tiny framework like Preact or Lit. (Of course, for a larger framework, this may be a different story. But this is true of any component dependency, not just a framework.)

Framework chauvinism

In general, I don’t think the question should be whether a component uses its own framework or not. Instead, the question should be: Is this component small enough/fast enough for my use case? After all, a component can be huge without using a framework, and it can be slow even when written in vanilla JS. The framework is part of the story, but it’s not the whole story.

I also think that focusing too much on frameworks plays against the strengths of web components. The whole point of web components is to have a standard, interoperable way to add a component to a page without worrying about what framework it’s using under the hood (or if it’s using a framework at all).

Web components also serve as a fantastic glue layer between frameworks. If there’s a great React component out there that you want to use in your Vue codebase, why not wrap it in Remount (2.4 kB) and Preact (4 kB) and call it a day? Even if you spent the time to laboriously create your own Vue version of the component, are you really sure you’ll improve upon the battle-tested version that already exists on npm?

Part of the reason I wrote emoji-picker-element as a web component (and not, for instance, as a Svelte component) is that I think it’s silly to re-implement something like an emoji picker in multiple frameworks. The core business logic of an emoji picker has nothing to do with frameworks – in fact, I think my main contribution to the emoji picker landscape was in innovating around IndexedDB, accessibility, and data loading. Should we really re-implement all of those things just to satisfy developers who want their codebase to be pure Vue, or pure Lit, or pure React, or pure whatever? Do we need an entirely new ecosystem every time a new framework comes out?

The belief that it’s unacceptable for a web app to contain more than one framework is something I might call “framework chauvinism.” And honestly, if you feel this way, then you may as well choose the framework that has the most market share and biggest ecosystem – i.e. you may as well choose React. After all, if you chose Vue or Svelte or some other less-popular framework, then you might find that when you reach for some utility component on npm, nobody has written it in your framework of choice.

Now, if you like living in a React-only world: that’s great. You can definitely do so, given how enormous the React ecosystem is. But personally, I like playing around with different frameworks, comparing their strengths and weaknesses, and letting developers use whichever one tickles their fancy. The vision of a React-only future fills me with a deep boredom. I would much rather see frameworks continue to compete and innovate and push the boundaries of what’s possible in web development than to see one framework “solve” web development forever. (Or to see frameworks locked in a perpetual ecosystem race against each other.)

To me, the main benefit of web components is that they liberate us from the tyranny of frameworks. Rather than focusing on cosmetic questions of how a component is written (did you use React? did you use Vue? who cares!), we can focus on more important questions of performance, accessibility, correctness, and things that have nothing to do with whether you use HTML templates or a render() function. Balking at web components that use frameworks is, in my opinion, missing the entire point of web components.

Thanks to Thomas Steiner and Thomas Wilburn for their thoughtful feedback on a draft of this blog post.

9 responses to this post.

  1. Posted by g2-8742ea135d1d4f0a14f49531dec3f607 on August 1, 2021 at 11:06 PM

    Nice info, I did not know some frameworks rewrite native functions… Now that you mentioned it, it kind of makes sense.

    Reply

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